For its beauty, wide open spaces and magnificent relief, Bay of Kotor is one of the most interesting natural attraction of the Mediterranean.
The history of Kotor
Surrounded by mountains Lovćen and the sea, Kotor is located at the end of the Boka Bay and it's officially one of the 25 most beautiful bays in the world. The time and place of its origin is not clearly established.
In the Byzantine sources name of the city is Dekateron, from time humanism city name is Ascrivium Italians known as Cattaro. The current name of the city of Kotor is an ancient name slavonized Cataruma.
Kotor is situated in the triangle which is bounded by the sea, river Škurda and hill Saint Ivan, on top of which stands the fortress of San Giovanni. The city is in its long history has changed many government and administration.
It was ruled by the Illyrians of the third century B.C.. After, it was conquered by the Romans who ruled the town until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 year. After that, Kotor became part of the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, and it remained within it, with brief interruptions, until 1185. The Byzantine rule in Kotor was interrupted in mid of the 11th century by administration of the Doclean-Zeta dynasty Vojislavljević. Byzantine rule was restored in the 12th century until 1185 ,when Kotor became part of Raska - medieval Serbian state ruled by the dynasty Nemanjić. Serbian administration lasts up to 1371., when the city was took over by the the Hungarian-Croatian king Ludovik I. The first period of Austrian rule over the city was from 1797. -1805. After it, the city was controlled by the Russians from 1806. until 1807. The French rules Kotor from 1807.-1813.
After the First World War Kotor entered into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and since the Second World War in the composition of the Republic of Montenegro, one of the six republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. By disintegration of SFR Yugoslavia, Kotor has remained in SR Yugoslavia. But, since 2006. Kotor became part of an independent Montenegro.
A large number of political administration, along with sailing and trade, were favorable to Kotor become the meeting place of many cultures. Kotor has accepted the EU Eastern and Western cultural forms and united them in his own way. Also, Kotor has developed and maintained the spirit of harmonious coexistence of its Catholic and Orthodox inhabitants, which is the basis for spiritual and cultural interaction. The cultural heritage of Kotor is UNESCO's list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
The city is surrounded by high walls, high up to 20 m and wide up to 10 m, built in the Byzantine era, Nemanjić and Venetians. Above the city rises the old fortress on the hill Saint Ivan (260 m). Town gates are a unique example of fortifications in Europe.
The city of Kotor has three doors. The door to the sea are rebuilt in Renaissance style in 1555., and they lead to the city promenade and the coast. The door on the side of the river were rebuilt in the same style in 1540., to commemorate the victory over the fleet Hajredin Barbarossa, leading to Risan, Herceg Novi, while doors Gurdić were re-established in the late seventeenth century, leading to the Trinity and the intersection of Cetinje - Budva.
The city is characterized by a number of features typical Mediterranean village: large and small squares and narrow winding streets. The largest and best architecture is shaped by the Square of Arms, near the main gate. On it are several valuable old buildings: Renaissance Rector's Palace. At the beginning of the nineteenth century in this building was one of the oldest theaters in the region, the Baroque tower clock from the seventeenth century. The square on which rises the Renaissance and Baroque palaces Pima is also ery nice, with a terrace that held two archivolt and longest balcony on the Adriatic coast.
In the palace Grgurina the Maritime Museum is located, in which is a rich collection of ancient weapons, costumes, models and images of Boka sailboats and ships, and naval battles involving seafarers of Boka. On the square in front of the Cathedral is the Historical Archives of Kotor. His oldest surviving document dates from 1326.
The most magnificent monument is the Cathedral / Basilica of St. Tryphon, built in 1166. Not only by its creation, but for its architectural design, decorative sculpture, known ciborium, fragments of frescoes from the fourteenth century, the St. Tryphon Cathedral is a cultural-artistic monument invaluable.
Very important monuments are: the Church of St. Luke in 1195., the church of St. Mary, rebuilt in 1221., the church of St. Paul from 1266., the church of Santa Chiara, the Franciscan monastery, which keeps a library of about 20,000 books, 50 incunabula, the earliest printed books to 1,500. year.
The most important palace in Kotor are: 'Buća' (XIV century), 'Drago' (XV), 'Pima' (XVI), 'Vrakjen' (XVIII) and 'Grubonja' (XVIII) with built-arms of the old Kotor pharmacy, founded before 1326.
Kotor, City guide, the author Stevan Kordić, the publisher 'Dobro more', Kotor 2009.;
The natural beauty and cultural monuments, the author Danilo Kalezić, published in the monograph KOTOR, Graphic Institute, Zagreb in 1970.